Management, or the management of joint human activities, is unthinkable outside of any form in which and through which these activities are carried out. This form is denoted by the term “organization”.
One of Chester Barnard’s notable management specialists defined the organization more than fifty years ago as “a system of consciously coordinated activities of two or more people.” According to this general definition, the organization is a social system above all else, because it is based on people.
Management of joint activities
The management of joint activities of more than two people has a history of development dating back centuries. Since ancient times, when people began to gather in groups, they tried to organize their activities to achieve some efficiency.
And one more thing, the emergence of management as a practice significantly precedes in time its emergence as a theory and as a discipline of scientific knowledge. Reference: “Strategies for the formation and use of knowledge in the organization”, https://pgov.org/strategies-knowledge-organization/
From the generalized conclusions from these “fleeting strokes” we can say that: management is a phenomenon of the 20th century, in the years after the Second World War management became a new social function and today no social organization can do without it.
The evolution in the theory and practice of management in the 20th century is therefore a sufficient basis for understanding this phenomenon, which has today become a systematic scientific field and a challenging profession.
Managers are needed for organizations
Before starting a job in a company, everyone had to answer the question of why he chose the career of a manager. The answers can be different – the work is interesting, in most cases well paid, full of challenges to personal abilities, provoking the desire to solve problems and to satisfy their ambitions for power. Managers are necessary for the existence, survival, and development of an organization, regardless of whether it is large or small, more financially powerful, or a start-up in business. Reference: “Skills and roles of the manager”, https://bvop.org/journal/skills-roles-managers/
What determines the role of the manager in a company?
The need for control over the work of subordinates and for coordination is known. In modern conditions with the imposition of new technologies in production and service, with qualitative changes in production tasks or the activities of the company as a whole, along with the increased requirements for employees and their operations and activities, coordination of the work and the individual contribution of each in the common task and, on the other hand – from information about the work done at each level, ie. feedback must be generated in the control circuit. Reference: “Management of the organization”, https://www.islandjournal.net/management-of-the-organization/
From the point of view of the organization, the managers are necessary for the smooth execution of the production tasks.
Managers are appointed as such or simply perform their duties
Depending on the specific conditions, managers can be formally appointed to such a position or perform this work in line with their direct duties, and in some companies, these tasks are delegated to the informal leader of a particular unit. The manager is the first management instance that deals with solving problems that arise in the organization.
With his efforts to increase the efficiency of the activity, the manager contributes to increasing the competitiveness of the company, to its lasting presence on the market, which leads to increased income and employee satisfaction. The manager is also in constant contact with social groups and communities in general.
The results of the work of the manager are evaluated not only by the management of the company but also by public opinion. The calm and satisfying work of subordinates largely depends on how the manager does his job.
The functional aspect of management
The functional aspect of management shows that the management process is associated with the same basic functions in each managerial job. However, it is beyond common sense to assume that all managers do the same job and have the same behavior in performing management functions.
Apart from the differences in the content of the problems they deal with (eg, production, marketing, finance, etc.), the work of managers also differs in other aspects. To reveal these differences, one must first look for what determines the content of the manager’s work. And these are the three main ingredients: functions, skills, and roles. There are also different views on the content of the manager’s work. Reference: https://newia.info
Different views on the work of the manager
There are also different points of view on the work of the manager. For example, P. Drucker writes that what all managers do, their specific and only work (beyond the many things they do and are not managing) is determined by five main activities: setting goals; organizing; motivation and communication; measurement and evaluation; human development. Reference: “Types of Human Resource Management”, https://stc-montreal.org/types-of-human-resource-management/
However, a careful analysis of the content it puts into these activities would again bring the three main components (functions, skills, and roles) mentioned into their indisputable integration.
For example, when planning the development and development of a new product, the manager of research and implementation must cover the process itself (its functions), understand the techniques and methods of management (skills), delegate rights to different organizational units dealing with the design, supply, production of prototypes (roles).
This combination of functions, skills, and roles is the basis of the manager’s work. But for each specific manager, the content and structure of these three main ingredients are different. So, to see the differences in this direction, we must first look for the differences in the managers of an organization. Reference: “Modern management in organizations”, https://mstsnl.net/modern-management-in-organizations/
There are different types of managers in every organization
In each organization, there are different types of managers, charged with the management of different units and sectors, and with different rights and responsibilities. Here we will focus on two main criteria for distinguishing managers: levels of management and the nature of the manager’s activities.
As is known, there are three main levels of management, the main factor for their differentiation is the time horizon of planning, which extends from long-term planning, typical of senior management, to short-term and daily planning at low levels:
- Strategic management – CEO, board of directors, etc.
- Tactical management – department or department managers, personnel managers, sales managers, etc.
- Operational management – a manager with secondary education or equivalent training, group manager, administrator, etc. Reference: https://medfd.org/
Types of managers
In organizations with an extensive management structure, at least three levels of management can be distinguished. They differ from each other but do not overlap.
At the same time, at each level, the structure of the work of managers has its specific emphasis on the three and main components. It should be borne in mind that in practice organizations use different names for managers, both at different levels and within one level. Reference: “Management and leadership: theories and approaches”, https://www.nebraskasocialstudies.org/management-and-leadership-theories-and-approaches/
Top managers are responsible for the interaction with the representatives of the external environment to establish the goals and strategies of the organization, its plans, the general operational policy.
Middle managers implement strategy and policy, implement plans and directly control lower-level managers.
Senior managers coordinate the work of non-managers and report to a manager.
The nature of the activity of managers is another convenient criterion for their classification. It is a question of whether they directly participate in the production – economic process of the organization or help the organization to achieve its goals. According to this criterion, managers are divided into line and service.
The production manager is a typical line manager, as he connects all production managers with the top management of the organization and is directly responsible for the production purposes.
The personnel manager is a typical servicing or providing the activity of the line managers. The production manager may sign or reject a contract of employment, sign a dismissal order.
The ratio of functions, direct rights, and obligations are different at different levels of management. Below we will consider the specific features of the implementation of key management functions.
Planning includes interpreting the strategic goals and objectives of the company, anticipating and identifying needs, defining tasks, and turning them into daily plans and schedules. In other words, this includes all activities from setting goals or objectives to deciding how and when to implement them. To perform these functions, the manager must:
- Pan the work of his subordinates, to develop time schedules for the implementation of the set tasks, and to interpret within his powers the plans established at a higher level;
- Develop a draft budget or draft accounts and make the necessary adjustments in them upon request or order;
- Anticipate the needs for staff, financial and material resources, etc. to carry out current tasks, meeting expected or insuring against unforeseen changes in the future, and informing superiors on time if the final decision depends on them;
- Make decisions within its competence to solve certain tasks or problems;
- Follow the strategy, policy, and plans of the company and ensure their implementation at the operational level;
- Consult with subordinates, with people from the main staff of the company, and with other managers about the future needs of the company and ways to meet them, as well as the current implementation of tasks.
Organization and coordination
The activities, structures, and responsibilities necessary for their implementation are determined and their combination to achieve the set tasks. This includes the recruitment and distribution of staff, materials, equipment, and financial resources. To perform this function, the manager must:
- Participate within the limits of his / her powers in the selection or the recruitment of personnel for the filling of the vacancies or in the expansion of the activity of the unit or department;
- Coordinate the implementation of tasks in such a way that the individual results of the work of each of the subordinates lead to an increase in the efficiency of the team as a whole;
- Provide, declare and allocate the resources necessary for direct work in such a way as to ensure rhythm in deliveries, production, service, etc .;
- Solve problems of the working microclimate for the subordinates to have an opportunity for manifestation and development; Reference: https://bpedia.org/
- Ensure the definition and clear understanding of the positions and tasks by subordinates.
Motivation and leadership
Adequate incentives are created for the manager and subordinates to perform a certain activity. To perform this function, the manager must:
- Explain to the subordinates the requirements to the set tasks and their role in the forthcoming work;
- Make the necessary instruction for work (in some cases it is mandatory);
- Explain to the subordinates the policy pursued by the company and the orders placed by the superiors in the management;
- Assist, advise or talk to subordinates in case of problems or needs related to work;
- Be in constant active contact with subordinates.
The control is a process during which the achieved results are compared with the planned ones to timely and qualitatively perform the tasks by each of the staff. To perform this function, the manager must:
- Evaluate the work done by subordinates;
- Create standards or criteria for the work of the group and impose the relevant ones in the interest of the work;
- Check the work of subordinates following the accepted criteria;
- Maintain the discipline at the necessary level and, if necessary, take adequate disciplined actions within its powers;
- Support effective feedback with subordinates on the progress of tasks and problems;
- Maintain production costs within the approved budget, and in case of unforeseen additional costs promptly
to notify higher levels of government;
- Keep accurate and store the required documentation, to prepare reports and reports and, if necessary, to provide information to other groups or teams, if necessary coordination of actions;
- Impose and monitor compliance with the requirements for labor protection and safety.